Study of Patterns of Maxillofacial Injuries in North‑Eastern Part of Madhya Pradesh
Background: Facial trauma is the most common trauma worldwide and more than 30% of the trauma cases suffer from fractured maxillofacial (MF) skeleton. MF region involves soft and hard tissues forming the face extending from frontal bone superiorly to the mandible inferiorly. The face being the most exposed part of the body is particularly prone to trauma. The primary cause of MF fractures throughout the world is road traffic accidents (RTAs) and assaults. In India, in spite of the great impact of MF traumatic injuries on the patient’s quality of life, there is inadequate information about the epidemiological characteristics of this problem. Aims: This study aims to study the incidence, patterns of injury, and different factors contributing to morbidity and mortality in MF injuries. Materials and Methods: All cases of MF injuries irrespective of the age and sex admitted through casualty or transferred from other departments or reported in opd during June 1, 2016–May 31, 2017. Detailed history and physical findings were recorded depending on the combination of fractures sustained. As in any trauma situation, initially addressing of all life-threatening injuries by following the advanced trauma life support protocol. Patients were managed with appropriate radiological investigations followed by either conservative or suitable operative procedures. Results: The male-female ratio of MF fractures was 6.5:1. 80% of MF fractures were caused by RTA. Mandible was most commonly involved isolated bone fracture in the present study (44.39%). The most common fracture seen was midface fracture, i.e., 50% of total MF fractures. 60% of mandibular fracture managed by closed reduction, 37.89% by open reduction, and rest 2.1% by conservative means. Midface and upper face fracture, 38.65% fracture managed by closed reduction, 47.90% by open reduction, and rest 13.45% by conservative means. Overall, mortality was 6%. Conclusion: RTAs remain the biggest etiological factor of MF fractures. There is higher incidence of fractures in men than women. There seems to be an urgent need for enhanced monitoring and regulation on motor vehicles to reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with RTAs. It is hoped that epidemiological surveys such as the one presented here will help the healthcare professions and policymakers in planning future programs of prevention and treatment.